Journal of the Western Mystery Tradition
No. 19, Vol. 2. Autumnal Equinox 2010
Appendix: 91 Angelic Governors and their Sigils
John Dee and Edward Kelley's Great Table, Part II
After Kelley scried, and Dee recorded, all 91 of these, back in May 1584 in Cracow, Kelley had his spectacular vision of the Watchtower described above. Note that in this vision, Kelley describes something round. Yet its components are thought (by Dee, Kelley, and every writer we are aware of who has considered the topic since) to map to particular parts of the Great Table, which appears square. Knowing Dee's life-long fascination with ancient Greek geometry, one suspects Dee would attempt to reconcile this dilemma with his geometric notions of how one might square the circle, or render it three-dimensionally with how one might cube a sphere.
Dee and Kelley are instructed how to map each of these Governor Sigils onto a grid (with four exceptions: the 28th-30th governors, Lexarph, Comanan, Tabitom, and the 65th governor, PARAOAN, do not have Sigils). The name given for the 65th governor, PARAOAN, is really a blind; in fact the Sigil we might give it corresponds to the letters Laxdizi. If one looks at Liber Scientiae, one can see that he leaves a blank space where the Seal PARAOAN should be; in the drawings that precede the Invocations in Sloane 3191, Dee has an extra Seal or Sigil and it corresponds to the letters "Laxdizi," not "PARAOAN."
Before further looking at Dee's table of Governors in Liber Scientiae, let's take a look at the five curious drawings connected to the Great Table which occur in Sloane ms. 3191 folios 52b-58a, just before the Invocations to the Angels of the Tabula Bonorum. They also immediately follow a drawing of the Angels of the Tabula Bonorum, yet most would not find any particular connection between the Angels of the Tabula Bonorum and the Great Table or the Angelic Governors. You may want to view these on-line here before reading further.
These drawings, like the rest of Sloane ms. 3191, are clearly not immediately transcribed Angelic material, but Dee working out previously received information, as can be noted by the neatness of the drawings and the calligraphic writing which follows it in the Invocations. That makes the slight corrections made on some of the Great Table drawings, and mirrored in the equally detailed and calligraphed tables in Liber Scientiae, even more notable than usual.
We'll go through these drawings one at a time. First, Dee draws out a grid:
Then, Dee draws a second set of tables where he writes Romanized equivalents of Enochian letters into the grid. That's the Table usually called the "Tabula Recensa," as illustrated in our discussion last issue. Sometimes it's called the "Raphael Recension."
If one looks closely at this first Great Table, it seems at first to not correspond to the surrounding drawings in Sloane ms. 3191. The tables are also re-ordered from the first reception in 1584.
Since directional and elements attributions are not clear at this point, we'll refer to each Watchtower (each quadrant of the Great Table) by using Roman letters for the three godnames that run across its meridian: oro ibAh aospi / oro ibAh aozpi, [the modern East/Air Tablet]; mph arsl gaich / mph arsl gaiol [the modern West/Water Tablet]; MOr dial hCtGa [the modern Earth/North Tablet]; and oiP tea pDoce [the modern Fire/South Tablet.]. Notice that at this point we're using two spellings for two of these names. We'll explain by the end of this section.
This second set, the first of two lettered Great Tables in this sequence of five drawings, contains quadrants in this order, and godnames spelled thus:
|oro ibAh aozpi||mph arsl gaiol|
|MOr dial hCtGa||oiP tea pDoce|
If we made modern elemental and directional attributions (see above) we would also have the correspondences modern occultists from Wiccans to neo-pagans use for the lower four points of the pentagram. But as stated, no directional and elements attributions are clear, or at least explicit, at this point.
Outside of each quadrant, you'll see the Seal or Sigil still associated with that quadrant. As the quadrants shift in later drawings, notice that the Seals shift with them or disappear, but never appear with a different quadrant of letters: for instance, the capital "T" with four squiggles always stays associated with the quadrant that contains "oro ibAh aospi / oro ibAh aozpi;" the one that looks like a little sun always stays next to "oiP tea pDoce." You'll also see, in the Black Cross that holds these names together, the names most now associate with the Tablet of Union. Here, these names are never tabled out into a 4x5 grid of their own (as is modern practice, and as Dee did in June of 1584), but appear in the Black Cross that binds the other four quadrants together.
If you shift to the next set of Tables, you'll see the Governor Seals / Sigils / jagged lines drawn onto four more tables. They appear thus:
If you compare the Seals or Sigils to the preceding, you'll see that the quadrants are now in this special arrangement, but numbered outside of the tables in this order:
The spatial relationship corresponds to the original order in which they were received; the numbering 1-2-3-4 corresponds to the "Tabula Recensa" discussed last issue, assuming you start at the upper left and go around clock-wise.
If you go to the effort of determining what Governors each of the jagged lines correspond to, you'll find that they map by shape to the Governors in our appendix with one exception which will be discussed below.
The only quadrant in the same place is the first, the one we've labeled "oro ibAh aozpi," now usually associated with the East. However, if you follow the sequence of the first or "Tabula Recensa" group, starting with "oro ibAh aozpi," and go clockwise around the quadrants, you'll get the same sequence that you would get if you follow the numbered versions above:
(Notice that this also suggests the sequence of names used by modern esotericists for the Tablet of Union, which by Sloane ms. 3191 no longer appears. We'll discuss this further in the next section.)
After the third Table, that above which shows the Governor sigils, Dee presents yet another Table with letters. The lettered quadrants now match the spatial relationship of the Governors above, are numbered in the same way as the Table of Governors above, and now the Seal or Sigils from the first group of tables have been moved to match the corresponding tablet. On the original manuscript, in the upper right hand corner, you can still see Dee's marginal note that says "so they must be placed," and gives letters that suggest the first letters of the quadrants as ordered in the "Tabula Recensa;" that is, r/T above, b/d below. In other words, he's made the drawing out of order and put in a marginal note to reorder it.
These Great Tables seem, to us, to show Dee looking at the four Watchtowers and either trying to figure out some sort of principle explaining their order in space in relation to one another, or, more likely, creating a teaching tool to show this to some other person or group. Dee makes it almost impossible for anyone to make directional attributions that make sense unless that person first comprehends the deeper structure. And in fact, he has been writing for himself, and perhaps others, subtle directions showing the logic he has applied: he has presented first the new "Tabula Recensa" order, then shown the Governors in an older order that made sense to him,  adjusted letters to match the Governors but done so with multiple corrections and a marginal note to go back to the order of the first lettered drawing (the second in the sequence) which has the fewest multi-lettered squares. Thus drawings three and four show the process he has gone through to come up with drawing two. This alone shows that Dee considered that the Governors ruled the placement of the quadrants themselves, implies that they should govern placement of individual letters, and shows he considers the material important enough that he will only convey it indirectly. As with his Sigillum, if someone just copies the material without understanding the built-in blinds, they will have material with errors: in this case, incorrect or multi-lettered squares.
The next drawing is the most confusing of the group, and one we'll return to and discuss briefly near the end of this article and in detail next issue, for it will be a key in understanding how Dee projects the Great Table of Earth upon the celestial sphere and how he may even connect it to his belief in a coming Golden Age. Dee presents this graphic just before beginning his Invocations:
He's arranged the letters for "TERRA" (Earth) in a pentagram on top of four squares which logically, given their placement after the preceding four sets of tables, represent the four quadrants of the Great Table of Earth. If the circle around the square is indeed Earth and the quadrants are the Great Table of Earth, then it appears the Black Cross runs directly through the center of Earth.
Now, the names that have been the middle of the four quadrants are presented as banners running around the outside between two circles, while the larger square in the center is inscribed in the inner circle, and what appear to be directional attributions are given to each of the tablets:
These names and the Watchtowers they appear on clearly don't match modern attributions, again except for the very first one, ORO IBAH AOZPI, which now as then is usually associated with the Watchtower in the East.
Indeed, the lack of surface correspondence to surrounding material or to modern correspondences may be why many most recent writers (Tyson being the notable exception) either ignore this drawing or simply say it is wrong. Yet one can find a similar set of Oriens-Meridie-Occidens-Septentrio attributions on the British Museum's above-pictured "Golden Talisman," derived from Kelley's 1584 Vision of the Watchtower, and as one of the drawings in Meric Causabon's A True and Faithful Relation..., a 1659 transcription of manuscript Cotton Appendix XLVI.
But both the words Dee uses for north and south and the drawing itself suggest that what Dee is really thinking of here is not a square in a circle inside another circle, but a spinning sphere (like the Earth) with a cube inscribed within it, and that cube/sphere surrounded by another sphere. The Latin words meridie and septentrio do not correspond directly to our notion of north and south as compass points. Meridie, which usually means noon or mid-day, can also mean something akin to "south of here," towards the "middle" (or towards what becomes the "Equator," even though we now use "prime meridian" to mark off eastern and western hemispheres rather than northern and southern ones.) Septentrio (and the related adjective septentrĭōnālis), was regularly used to refer to the northern winds, or the north as a quarter of the heavens, and was associated with the seven stars near the North Pole.)
If Dee is conceptualizing a cube in a spinning sphere like our globe, then "east" and "west" really only have meaning as directions of spin around a pole. The other two directions become polar points, polar north and polar south. Keep in mind that Dee, like all of us, must try to make sense of new information in terms of what he already knows, including the mysteries he has spent a lifetime exploring. His Propaedeumata Aphoristica, a 120 Theorem expansion of the Monas Hieroglyphica or Hieroglyphic Monad, implied that the "preliminary teachings" everyone needed to know was "something" (no one in print has explained exactly what) that involves how spheres in the heavens exert force upon both an individual and upon the Earth, and gives directions on everything from capturing that energy for making talismans and locating oneself on earth in relation to the cosmos. As early as the third theorem of the Monad, Dee makes it clear that his two-dimensional circle implies a sphere.
To Dee these four squares in a circle which implies a sphere likely define the sides of a cube. The Black Cross, whatever it is, runs through the center of cube in a spinning sphere. If one reduces it back to two dimensions (four squares on a plane with two lines that intersect as a cross), the two lines easily become four by being displaced from the single intersecting point, an idea presented by Dee as a key point in the Hieroglyphic Monad in Theorem VII.
In his sacred geometry work Dee (like virtually every geometer of his time) was concerned with the three classical problems of sacred geometry, one of which was the squaring of the circle; in addition, as Wilson has demonstrated, he's already stumbled onto a concept of higher dimensions via his attempt to use conic sections to solve the Delian problem, or the doubling of the cube. Dee must bring his previous understandings of sacred geometry to this drawing, and, as with the monad glyph itself, presents his understanding in a typically condensed and opaque format. This drawing, unlike the preceding ones, appears to be totally Dee's construction of how he thinks the material goes together. The only preliminary referents that are anything close are his transformations in the Monad, first, and Kelley's Vision of the Watchtowers, second. It is referred to nowhere in any of the angelic conversations; he is nowhere told to make a drawing anything like it. The reader's time would be well spent in studying how the Monad glyph might relate to this much-ignored diagram and how that understanding might inform diagrams of Kelley's vision.
We'll put that drawing aside for now, at least until the next section. We now have four Tables and an unusual square in a circle in a circle. Together they show Dee looking for (or perhaps, finding and illustrating) some principle of how the four quadrants of the Great Table are arranged in space and in relation to one another, and always keeping the same Governor Seals with the same quadrant and same Watchtower Seal with the same quadrant.
Both the table in Liber Scientiae and the five drawings which preceded the Invocations show Dee trying to reconcile discrepancies between individual letters, and entire Governor names. For instance, consider the drawings below. We have intentionally focused on one of the Governor names, Virochi, which affects one of the Godnames often used by modern occultists, one of the three that runs along the meridian of the Watchtower today associated with Water/West, which appeared in Dee's drawing above associated with the North, which Dee's drawings always appear to spell "mph arsl gaiol."
Governor #8, Virochi, runs through some of the squares in this series of Godnames, as you can see in the first drawing below. We've highlighted the Governor Seal in Blue, and circled the letters where there is a discrepancy. You can see Dee left the "ol" in, but also wrote in below "ch," which is what the Governor name would be. Unlike the example in the lower left, where Dee has stricken out an earlier letter and written in a correction, here with gaiol/giach, he has left both.
As a contrast, if you look at the fourth Table in the group discussed above, you will see multiple places where Dee has crossed out one letter and replaced it with another. Here, with this example and a few others in Liber Scientiae and this Table preceding Invocations, he has left in both.
Let's look at the same Governor where it appears in Liber Scientiae. Here Dee has done the reverse: He has written out the name of the Governor, Virochi, and under the "ch" written in an "ol," using the numbers from the "mph arsl gaiol" god names.
Hulse, who gets further in his in-print explanation of this than anyone else, notes that these and other discrepancies between letters in the Table and letters of the Governors "created a great dilemma for Dee, causing the creation of the multi-lettered squares in the Watchtower system."
Rather than suggesting that Dee could never make up his mind, we suggest these two sets of drawings in Sloane 3191 show Dee placing in plain sight the solution for the blind: if we understand that the Governors govern the Table and the individual letters do not, then it is easy to know which letter to pick: the one that corresponds to the Governor. Thus we should have "mph arsl gaich" and "oro ibAh aospi" rather than what he has on the drawing which follows. That next drawing is to illustrate how the Table of Earth maps to a spinning sphere, not to solve the blind of the Governors.
To rectify the Great Table after the Tabula Recensa, first return the quadrants to the order of the Tabula Recensa, keeping the Governor Sigils and the Watchtower Sigils with the quadrants they correspond to.
If you add in the letters that the Governors connect, you see something that starts to look more like the the Great Table. Also, notice which letters are not part of a Governor. We now have this:
If you put in the Black Cross (as Dee did in all of the drawings described above), you would have a Great Table of Earth that, with the Blind of the Governors solved, would look like this:
If you add the shadings that make it easier to determine the linear godnames now derived from the Great Table, you have this:
With the Great Table arranged this way, we start to see other things not as easily apparent on Dee's originals. We will find that there are 88 Seals, not 87 as in Dee's list. The three in the Black Cross—Lexarph, Comanan, and Tabitom—don't have Seals (the jagged lines that connect letters in the Watchtowers), but there is one extra Governor: if we look at the "mph arsl gaich" Watchtower, we'll see a set of jerky lines which connect the letters "Laxdizi." Logically then, we can substitute "Laxdizi" for Paraoan. It is via this argument that Hulse argues that PARAOAN, composed of all capital letters and seven of the eight "adverse" or reversed letters is "the invisible Governor ruling the visible 91," or the hidden 92nd Governor. Bridges agrees and suggests that this might be rephrased as the Governor that "underpins" or supports the other 91.
How might that be? Take Hulse's argument a step further, and you'll see that the eight reversed letters, PARAOAN and L, connect the "outside" of the Great Table to the "inside," once the four quadrants are conceived as the faces of a cube placed in four directions and held together by a Tablet of Union/Black Cross. We'll explain that in our next section. If PARAOAN is indeed "invisible," on the surface of the Earth (those spaces which the other Governors govern), the "place" where it likely resides is that hyperspace where the "outside" of the Watchtowers connects to the "inside" of the Black Cross. If one prefers a three dimensional conception, think of it this way: if we have 91 Angelic Governors that govern parts of the surface of the Earth, PARAOAN governs what is under the surface of the Earth. The 93rd Governor postulated by some will not be explained this article.
In the meantime, the reader is invited to derive the remaining linear godnames on her own! Once the Great Table is lettered correctly, that exercise is a relatively easy one explained in multiple places, on-line and in print.
As discussed, the three Governors that don't have Seals, Lexarph, Comanan, and Tabitom, make up the Black Cross. In modern Enochian / Ophanic magic, the Black Cross is often represented as the Tablet of Union. As noted above, if you use the "Tabula Recensa" order, start in the upper-left and go clockwise, you get these four groups of godnames on the meridians:
As most readers know, modern magicians refer these names to those four Watchtowers: oro ibAh aospi/EXARP; mph arsl gaich/HCOMA; MOr dial hCtGa/NANTA; oiP tea pDoce/BITOM. If we were to use this modern Table but add back the L and capitalize the first letter of Governors as Dee does elsewhere, we'd get something like this:
Where does the modern Tablet of Union come from?
Very early in Dee's angelic working (June 26, 1584) is the only place where we find anything remotely like it and even then it is not at all that clear that Ave, Dee, or anyone else intends these words to be used as a standing component in ritual. In fact, it appears to us that this is an error Dee makes, goes back and corrects in the same manuscript, and never presents in the same way again. By the time he tables out the Governors in Sloane 3191 and presents the five drawings discussed earlier in this essay, he uses a Black Cross, not a Tablet of Union. He actually starts to do that the same day he first receives the information.
We'll take you through the whole process in a moment. It's one of the few places where we see Dee, "on stage" so to speak, grappling with something truly at the edge of his mathematical understanding. If Robert Wilson's analysis of Theorem XX of the Hieroglyphic Monad is correct (that is, if Dee understands his connection or ability to navigate in dimensions above three as an apocalyptic connection to New Jerusalem, among other things, as demonstrated by his ability to use an unusual application of conic sections to solve the ancient sacred geometry problem of the Doubling of the Cube and thus find connections between seemingly non-adjacent spaces,) it is no wonder he considered this material so valuable. He would have, in terms of his ability to understand it, been "seeing" proof of what he had written about so many years before. He would also see it as "proof" of the Hermetic maxim as above, so below; as within, so without.
Today, we might describe this in terms of how four- and five-dimensional spaces, or four dimensional spaces with time as an added dimension of energy flow, allow information and energy to transfer in ways that make no sense in three dimensions. But to Dee, it would have been a demonstration of the Divine and proof of Hermetic concepts in action.
To make things even more dramatic, Dee receives this "proof" immediately after Ave describes what the Great Table contains, the previously discussed list of nine items which begins with "all human knowledge." The proof, which it takes Dee some time to assemble and rework into the drawings he presents in Sloane ms. 3191, involves the four Governors that have no Seal and thus appear to not map to the Great Table: Lexarph, Comanan, Tabitom, and Paraoan.
Let's start in June 1584, and compare two accounts: that in Dee's semi-legible original manuscript, preserved as MS. Cotton Appendix XLVI, and Meric Casaubon's 1659 transcription of the same material, in A True and Faithful Relation. As the editors of the Magickal Review note in their on-line presentation of this material, Casaubon's work contains "numerous errors of transcription and of printing (too numerous to note), and the Cotton MS. itself is incomplete; however, Casaubon's text serves as an often invaluable aid in the reading of the MS., supplying the occasional word which has decayed since 1659, and otherwise greatly assisting in the reading of Dee's handwriting, which frequently borders on the illegible."
If one reads over either Dee's original manuscript (which as noted is exceedingly difficult to do, as we're not now dealing with the carefully calligraphed writing of Sloane ms. 3191 but semi-legible rapidly written cursive) or Casaubon's transcription in A True and Faithful Relation, one sees that "Lexarph, Comanan, and Tabitom," when written out in this key section, actually are appearing as characters in the shewstone. In our discussion here, we'll rely on Casaubon except when it appears to us that his presentation distorts the material.
E.K. Now he [Ave] appeareth again.
. . . Look out Lexarph, with the two others that follow him, among the names of the Earth the three left.
Lexarph, Comanan, and Tabitom
Look out the name Paraoan. Write out Paraoan in a void paper.
Dee [written as Greek delta throughout]: I have done so.
Seek out Lexarph.
Dee: I have found it.
Look into the 4 parts of the Table, and take the letters that are of the least character. Look among the 4 parts that have the characters, and look to the characters that have the least letters.
Dee: I have done.
. . . How many letters are they?
. . .They must be eight.
Dee: They are these (as I have noted them) [illegible, conveniently]
. . .There are eight in the four.
Dee: Afterwards I had found 8 letters in the 4 principles, for I had omitted [unclear in original manuscript; Causabon writes T l.]
. . .Dwellin darkness. Dee: I suspect this was spoken to me, to my reproof, for no more diligence used in the search.
Dee's original manuscript presents the material basically the same way. Notice that Dee seems to be looking at manuscripts he has already written out: Lexarph appears with two others that follow "him," but when Dee is told to seek out Lexarph, he says he has found "it," as if he is looking for the name on a manuscript.
One thing is much more apparent when one looks at the original: some of Dee's notes were likely written in later, such as the very final two comments above: he believes (later) that Ave has told him to dwell in darkness because he didn't find what Ave told him to look for (all eight letters), and having found them later, what Ave said makes sense.
That's critical when we look at the next section, the only place in all of Dee's manuscripts where something like a Tablet of Union appears. He writes the letters now used as the Tablet of Union out in a note to himself; yet material given him later the very same day show Dee learning how to put them in a "crosse of union or black crosse." This time, Dee's original manuscript and Casaubon's transcription appear very different.
As you can see from the snippet reproduced from the original manuscript, Dee writes the four names now used in the Tablet of Union as a marginal note, with a line running from "Lexarph, Comanan, and Tabitom" to his note "these be 3 names of the 10th Aire. . ." , and an arrow up to the letters. It is not clear if the underlined "Lexarph, Comanan, and Tabitom" was written at the time, or squeezed in later as an after-note.
In True and Faithful Relation, Casaubon's transcription makes it look much more like this should be some sort of standing table, because he moves the marginal comment to the center of the page and rearranges many of the comments so they seem to more respond to each other. He presents the material thus, his rearrangement making it appear that Dee's marginal note is instructions by Ave:
[Ave:] They must be made all one character.e x a r p
h c o n [sic] a
n a n t a
b i t o m
Lexarph, Comanan, Tabitom
Set down these three names, leaving out the first L (that is of Lexarph, set them down by 5.)
When Ave says they must be made of one character, does that mean put them together in a table? Not if you look at the original manuscript, where the tabled letters are a marginal note. And in fact, as the session progresses, Dee is told to put these letters into a "Black Crosse" (described in the margins twice as "crosse of union or black crosse") in a way that matches what we see drawn out three years later in Sloane ms. 3191. Ave instructs Dee to place an "E" in the first square of the Black Cross, then gives some added material, about how a particular element might cure an incurable disease, and another has power over metals, and another than can give money coined in Gold and Silver. In other words, Ave seems to connect the Governors of the Black Cross and whatever they represent to the list of what the Great Table itself contains.
Never again after this do we see anything in Dee's writing like the modern Tablet of Union. Instead we see a Black Cross, which suggests multiple comparisons to Dee's use of the cross in earlier works like the Monad.
A slightly more recent manuscript, Sloane ms. 307 (perhaps composed less than a century after Dee's death) does show a Tablet of Union, but that could well be because those who used that manuscript were relying upon the transcription from Casaubon's True and Faithful Relation, which was published from material in the Cotton manuscripts, and did not contain material from Sloane ms. 3191, which as noted is a much more legible three-years later reworking of the material. Or, perhaps, the writers of Sloane ms. 307 found the tabled-out letters easier to work with.
Let's see what happens if we move forward to Sloane ms. 3191, and look at Dee's reordered "Tabula Recensa" rectified as we suggested above. Once the Watchtowers are re-ordered as per another vision of Kelley's, something amazing appears that is not the case in the original order. ALL of the letters unused in making Governor sigils, which are also the "adverse" letters, now appear on the edge of the Great Table.
Remember Ave's 1584 instructions: "Look into the 4 parts of the Table [the Watchtowers], and take the letters that are of the least character. Look among the 4 parts that have the characters, and look to the characters that have the least letters." Ave's instructions apply to the Governor Sigils, not the letters themselves—all of the squares are filled with seven-letter Governor Sigils, except three Watchtowers that have a two-letter Sigil, and one that has two one-letter "dots." In 1584, Ave has told Dee to look for these characters, and he has written them out, though his writing is now illegible.
In the graphic below, we've circled the "adverse" letters":
The adverse letters around the outside of the Great Table spell the hidden 92nd Governor, Paraoan, and the "L" of Lexarph, which may be the letter Dee omitted in the section discussed above. If it were, Dee would have no doubt connected his omission to Ave's comment that he dwelled in darkness, because years before, in the Hieroglyphic Monad, Dee makes repeated puns on L/El (Hebrew for God) and connects it to the central point of light from which all things come, the light that displaces the four "lines" of the cross, and which represents the LVX/INRI transformation which becomes the analysis of the keyword in modern Golden Dawn and Thelemic occultism. The l, or linea recta, also becomes a key concept for a particularly elegant mathematical transformation involving parabolas and hyperbolas, concepts which grow out of the geometry of conic sections.
Most remarkably, though, we now see why Paraoan as a hidden 92nd Governor lies under the other 91: because the outside of this Great Table connects to the Black Cross on the inside. The "L"/"El"/ Dee's "God space" or "Christ-glue" from Theorem XX starts on the outer edge of the Great Table and continues onto the Black Cross. And within the cross itself, we see concepts Dee would immediately see as "proofs" of Theorems XII, XVI, XVII and XX in the Monad: in that work, he shifts a cross or X into 3D by viewing it as the result of two intersecting cones sharing the same axis and vertex being sliced through by an intersecting two-dimensional plane. In Theorem XVI he has told us he must stop and philosophize about the "cross," punning on Latin "crux," as in the crux of the matter, in this case how to focus the light of the Divine, then invites his reader to visualize a cross in terms of conic sections. He proceeds to "slice" these sections into the letters L, V, and X in Theorem XVII, making LVX or the light of the Cross, and by XX, he presents two sets of intersecting cones (represented by the theorem's number, XX), which he uses for his proof of the Delian problem or the Doubling of the Cube, and in the process, runs into a concept we would generally associate with a hypercube rather than conic sections: the notion of edges that are separate in 3D touching each other in higher dimensions. (In fact, he also associates it with a cube superimposed over another cube; he just gets to that proof via conic sections.)
The non-adjacent edges that touch on the Great Table show the outside edge becoming the inside, and the inside circulating back out, as we might now conceive of a torus. We can now also speculate why the four five-letter names in the Black Cross appear twice, rather than once, unlike every other Governor name. They are a cube doubled. So, each of these names are written twice. They mirror each other, just as the "adverse" letters on the outer edge are "mirrors" of regular letters. Dee has truly, for better or worse, fallen through the looking glass, in trying to make sense of images scried by Edward Kelley.
Having fallen through the looking glass with John Dee and Edward Kelley, we can start to establish Directional, Elemental, Temporal, and Alchemical Attributions of the four Watchtowers that make up the Great Table of Earth. We speak of a "looking glass" only partially in jest, and partly as a concept one must understand to project the Great Table onto four directional faces of a cube, or onto the surface of a spinning sphere, like the Earth, or upon the celestial sphere, the night sky as viewed from a particular location at solstices and equinoxes. It will be key to realize how, for instance, a lens can reverse parts of an image, a concept Dee would be well aware of from his extensive work with optics. If one looks at a reflected image, two of the "directions" change, but the axis of symmetry remains the same. Similarly, in determining directions, we must determine what our point of references is: are we looking at directions that will work from a point on the surface of the earth, that work from the center of the earth, or from somewhere else?
We'll look at this in much more detail next issue, as we take up our one-issue-delayed discussion of modern adaptions of the Great Table, especially those of Moina and MacGregor Mathers and Aleister Crowley. We'll also see if there is a logic behind why the colors used by Kelley are changed into those use by the Matherses. On the surface, Kelley's colors appear to match those most frequently used by Kabbalists and Moina Mather's seem most influenced by late 19th century color scale theories used in art schools. Does her development of the four color scales relate at all to material her husband may have understood about other correspondences of the Watchtowers?
If you would like to try to work out these correspondences on your own in the meantime, here are some guiding principles to keep in mind: as stated above, notice how an image is reversed when you look into a lens; keep in mind also that compass points North-South-East-West are only relative directions. In June 1584, not long after the angelic conversation discussed above, John Dee does ask Ave about directions. He asks what is meant by working in the East, and is told "The East and West, in respect of your Poles."
On the surface of a spinning sphere, east and west only really make sense as directions of spin and are most easily defined at the Equator. Polar north and Polar south define the tilt by which someone at the hypothetical center of the Earth—the center point of the Black Cross—might look up, or down, and "see" different objects in the sky. From this model, we can "map" the "Tabula Recensa" to the night sky, and find directional and elemental attributions that match those used by MacGregor Mathers. In fact, they match with such accuracy, and are elaborated upon by Mathers so well, that Mathers must have understood this part of the system.
Yet we can further demonstrate that he did not seem to have a concept of higher geometry nearly as well-developed as Dee's, nor an understanding of some of the blinds discussed in this article. As we search for the source of MacGregor Mathers' information in the Concourse of Forces, we'll be led once again through the legendary world of Secret Chiefs and second-hand bookstores, and run into the deepest mystery of them all: "elemental" attributions to the Watchtowers that appear to correspond to constellations ruled by the "fixed" signs in the zodiac, and which match best not in Dee's time period, but our own.
In the meantime, we'll leave you once again with our updated Watchtowers, version 2010.2:
1. On June 26, 1584, via his scryer Kelley, Dee records the angel AVE telling him the "purpose" for these four Watchtowers: 1) All human knowledge. 2) Out of it springeth Physick. 3) The knowledge of the Elemental Creatures among you. How many kinds there are, and for what use they were created. Those that live in the air, by themselves. Those that live in the waters, by themselves. Those that live in the earth, by themselves. The property of fire—which is the secret life of all things. 4) The knowledge, finding, and use of Metals. The virtues of them. The congelations and virtues of Stones. They [these preceding three things] are all of one matter. 5) The conjoining and knitting together of Natures. The destruction of Nature, and of things that may perish. 6) Moving from place to place (as into this Country, of that Country at pleasure.] 7) The knowledge of all crafts Mechanical. 8) Transmutatio formalis, sed non essentialis [formal alchemical transmutation.] 9) [Dee's note in margin:] The ninth chapter may be added, and is of the secrets of men knowing, whereof there is a particular table. See further discussion: http://www.jwmt.org/v2n18/tablets.html
2. Ibid. Those we discussed specifically included the "Enochian" or "Angelicall" language itself, the Hieroglyphic Monad as a key to Dee's sacred geometry, and the Sigillum Dei Aemeth or Seal of Truth
3. This is in effect what David Hulse argues, though he makes the argument via pages of numeric analysis rather than by approaching it as a magical blind. See Hulse, The Key of It All Book II: The Western Mysteries, pp. 147-245.
4. Last issue, we said we would discuss, specifically, some aspects of the modern adaptations by the Golden Dawn, including Macgregor Mathers' odd system of determining the name of the Watchmen and other attributions which appear in his Concourse of Forces, and Aleister Crowley's adaption of some of these aspects in Liber Chanokh. Because that explanation is extremely long and this article is already complex and lengthy, we're deferring that discussion, which includes directional, temporal, alchemical, and elemental attributions of the Watchtowers and how it might connect to different systems of coloring and arranging those Watchtowers, until next issue. However, the first parts of these arguments are sketched out in this article's conclusion, in the event the reader wants to try to discover these correspondences on her own.
5. The intrigues around this working have been the subject of two previous articles by one of us: see Burns, Francis Garland, William Shakespeare, and John Dee's Green Language and William Shakespeare, Spy, and a Visit to Trebona. However, to our knowledge, no one has analyzed in print how or why the surrounding sexual "Action" connects to Dee and Kelley's other Angelic communications (if it does) or to physical alchemy (if it does) or to the about-to-commence Heptarchic working (if it does.) Note, however, that the manuscript we're chiefly discussing in this article (Sloane ms. 3191) falls in the same time period as all of these intrigues; notice also that part of the knowledge contained in the Great Table of Earth is "formal alchemical transmutation" (see note 1 above).
6. See the discussion of this in the related article this issue, in the sub-section 400 Years of Character-Assassinating Edward Kelley.
8. After Theorem XVIII, the "LVX/IRI" transformation we've discussed in an earlier Journal article, Dee struggles to continue his three dimensional Kabbalistic and Pythagorean correspondences because, as Wilson argues this issue, he has stumbled onto the concept of higher dimensions. Clay Holden further notes, and Don Milo DuQuette illustrates, that Dee's Monad glyph can be used, in its 4x9 grid, to produce a regular heptagon inscribed in a circle. See Clay Holden, "Forward," in Lon Milo Duquette's Enochian Vision Magick (San Francisco: Red Wheel/Weiser, 2008), xx; and Duquette in the same, 89. The way this glyph can be used to approach this problem from ancient Greek geometry approximates an earlier solution 1525 solution by Albrecht Dürer which Dee would have been well aware of. See Dürer, Underweysung der Messing mit dem Zirckel und Richtscheyt (Treatise on Mensuration with Compass and Ruler), 1525, or watch a modern animation online: http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/AlbrechtDurersHeptagonOf1525/
11. This work is available now in many places on-line and in print; the most easily available are Joseph Peterson's John Dee's Five Books of Mystery (San Francisco: Red Wheel/Weiser, 2003), and on-line as part of Clay Holden's now-abandoned John Dee Publication Project: http://www.john-dee.org/Secundus.pdf. See the preceding URL or Peterson, pp. 102-103.
15. These names and attributions, which appear nowhere in Dee and Kelley's original writing, are: Air/ Tahaoeloj; Water/ Thahebyobeaatanun; Earth/Thahaaotahe; Fire/Ohooohaatan. Despite the extreme ill will between Mathers and Crowley (who battled each other in court), Crowley used the same names in Liber Chanokh. Did they understand something about the Seal that we do not? Did Mathers have access to some material since lost? Or is the attribution just silly? We'll return to that question when we get to later adaptions of the Enochian system next issue, but for those interested now: note that changing this numbering will also change the name of the Water King. The main people this "blind" effects are those who use the names of these Four Enochian Kings used by Mathers; they seem unrelated to the talismanic magic of the Seal itself.
17. Many, many writers have grappled with this material. Some have attempted, using manuscripts of the time, to ascertain what parts of the globe Dee's odd geographic names referred to (for the best of these, see Robin Cousins, in Duquette, op. cit., Appendix III 212-213.) Yet one may read the manuscripts and notice that Dee simply doesn't have enough of a conception of global land masses to understand the information he is given: more than once, the "Angels" will point to a location on the spinning globe and there will be no word for it. Thus Dee's language reflects a hugely Eurocentric view, where European locales make up most of the Governors and other whole continents only have one Governor. This is not a criticism of Dee, who had one of the most sophisticated geographic educations of his age [see E.G.R. Taylor's Tudor and Geography, 1485-1583 (New York: Octagon Books, 1968, 1930) for several chapters on Dee's contribution.] But Dee did not have the vocabulary or knowledge to "map" this information. We suggest that a more correct mapping of these locations can only be done by understanding how the Great Table is oriented in space.
18. See http://www.john007dee.com/greatvision.html for a transcription; see David Jones's "The System of Enochian Magick, Part III: The Hierarchy of the Watchtowers," on-line at http://hermetic.com/enochia/system_enochian_magick_3.html for a teaching account; for an in-print discussion see Duquette op. cit. pp. 123-126 or Donald Tyson, Enochian Magic for Beginners (Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn, 1997) pp. 155-167); for a discussion of Biblical and other correspondences, see Aaron Leitch, "A Discourse on the Enochian Watchtowers," http://kheph777.tripod.com/art_discourse.html
21. In a note to students, David Jones writes: "The student of Enochian can compare the lists of names with the sigils, which formulate their existence on the Watchtowers, and easily see the correlation [between the Angelic Governors and the Watchtower letters.] But realize that the names were delivered first and then the Watchtowers horizontally line by line and after having both figures at hand. The Angels demonstrated that, by discrete (7 letters, the number of letters in each Governor's name) linear connections, all of the letters given in the Watchtowers could be accounted for from the letters that formulate names of the Governors previously given. This would require either a monumental and complex second and third order memorization (2 dimensions to 1 dimension then back to 2 dimensions and with directional correlation from a 3 dimensional origin to a 3 dimensional conclusion) on Kelly's part or an elaborate and extremely obtuse deception on Dee's part. This constitutes one of the chief proofs of the system." See: "The System of Enochian Magic Part II: The Evolution of the Tablets," available: http://hermetic.com/enochia/system_enochian_magick_2.html
23. See http://www.themagickalreview.org/enochian/mss/img/sloane_3191/3191_15_Invoc_f52b-58a.jpg. Of note, the drawing Dee makes of the Tabula Bonorum itself immediately precedes these drawings, and may be seen at: http://www.themagickalreview.org/enochian/mss/img/sloane_3191/3191_13_DHM-45b-51a.jpg
24. Because of the vagaries of HTML we are not able to render these letters reversed, but basically they should be one after the other in all capitals with each letter a mirror image of how it usually appears.
25. May 23, 1587, Dee records the following: "Green Woman: . . .Then shall your eyes be opened to see and understand all such things as have been written to you, and taught you from above. But beware ye take heed, that you dwell within yourselves, and keep the secrets of God, until the time come that you shall be bid SPEAK: for then shall the spirit of God be mighty upon you; so that it shall be said of you, "Lo were not these the sorcerers, and as such accounted vagabonds?" The easiest-to-read modern transcription of this section of the Cotton manuscripts is in Edward Fenton's John Dee's Diary, (Oxfordshire: Day Books, 1998) p. 226. Beware, however, that Fenton mixes different manuscripts of Dee's and material from Dee's personal and spirit diaries without saying which is which.
28. Burns has elsewhere speculated that the "Francis Garland" in Dee's diaries may be none other than William Shakespeare, and indeed similarly speculates that this unidentified "Gulielmus" was the same person. See "Concerning Ed. Kelley's Poem" , "Francis Garland, William Shakespeare, and John Dee's Green Language," and "Shakespeare's Green Garland Part Two: William Shakespeare, Spy, and a Visit to Trebona," in previous issues of this Journal.
30. See accompanying article by Burns, "A Golden Storm: Attempting to Recreate the Context of John Dee and Edward Kelley's Angelic Material."
31. Unlike most others, it does not contain a myriad of typos and inconsistencies introduced by using lettering from the Tabula Recensa rather than the Governors; thus it is that version, Causabon's version, and the Dee originals that we checked our appendix against.
33. We consider these Seals or Sigils; some do not. We're following the argument of Hulse, op. cit., who throughout refers to them as Seals though he doesn't say why, and Vincent Bridges, who uses them as Seals for reasons not discussed in this article. For the purposes here, if you'd prefer to think of them as little jagged lines that run from square to square instead of Seals, that's fine!
35. A formal mathematical discussion is far beyond the scope of this article, though one is welcome to apply the ideas discussed by Wilson, op.cit., to our more right-brain application of the ideas at the end of this paper.
36. The first writer we're aware of who makes this observation in print in Hulse, op. cit., pp. 195, 200. Oddly, DuQuette's more recent Enochian Vision Magic, op. cit., side steps the entire topic as if he is not aware of it or does not notice the existence of a Governor that maps to the letters Laxdizi instead of PARAOAN. Other recent accounts focus more on the letters and language and thus never discuss the Governors in any detail.
38. If one wanted to look for a connection, it's advanced far beyond the scope of this article. For instance, Bridges has pointed out that the Calls are generated from a 7 x 7 pattern similar to that of the Tabula Bonorum (personal communication, 2010).
40. The graphic used last issue was courtesy Ian Rons, used with permission, and available here: http://www.themagickalreview.org/reviews/practical-angel-magic-update/
41. Other sources from the time period also suggest that Dee and Kelley were teaching or giving demonstrations to some sort of group. For instance, consider the critical debate about whether or not Dee actually wrote Tuba Veneris, translated by Burns and Turner in an earlier Journal article as The Little Book of Black Venus. The earliest surviving manuscript, which is not in Dee’s hand, appears to have been composed on the European continent in the 1580s; whether or not Dee came up with it (as we think he did), or someone very familiar with his angelic work, someone other than Dee copied it down. Tuba Veneris also shows a doubling of the cube concept similar to the one discussed in this article.
42. As we'll discuss next time, and as Jones has pointed out op. cit., Dee's original Watchtower order in the Great Table has a particular heliocentric logic, and he is still using that logic for the Governors here. After a vision of Kelley's not recounted in this article, he changes the order to that of the "Tabula Recensa;" his progression here thus shows him presenting new information or an ordering that at first does not make sense; presenting the Governors in the old order, illustrating the principle of the Governors staying with the Watchtowers they Govern, then introducing directional attributions in a very opaque manner. Once one sees how he makes directional attributions, these transformations show a teaching process; until one does, they simply appear confusing.
43. The notion of the pentagram as coming from or being implicit in Dee's Tablets is discussed in an accompanying article, in the section "The Underground Stream Surfaces."
44. See Tyson's fascinating discussion in Tyson, op. cit., 147-149. It puzzles the authors how Tyson is able to go from seemingly brilliant observations like this one to others which seem more in keeping with very superficial and fundamentalist notion of Christian apocalypse.
45. As we'll explain more when we talk about directional attributes next issue, these are only "wrong" in a limited case which happens to be the one most people use the most—mapping the quadrants to four directions, when one "imagines" one is standing on a flat earth and seeing each of four directions off to the sides, as if they are four sides of a cube rather than directions that map to a spinning sphere.
46. Casaubon, Meric, A True & Faithful Relation of What Passed for Many Yeers between Dr. John Dee and Some Spirits, graphic on unnumbered page preceding p. 1. Available: http://www.themagickalreview.org/enochian/tfr.php
47. See Lewis & Short Latin Dictionary; on-line at: http://perseus.uchicago.edu/Reference/LewisAndShort.html
48. For a discussion of how the work of Dee's was related to the optics and physics of the time, see J L Heilbron's introduction to Wayne Shumaker's translation of Dee's Propaedeumata aphoristica [John Dee on astronomy: Propaedeumata aphoristica (1558 and 1568), ed. and trans. by Shumaker, Berkeley : University of California Press, 1978). Unfortunately, this is the only English translation available and both the translation and introduction and it reflects a very outdated notion of Dee's mathematics and natural philosophy.
49. Burns and Moore, "The Hieroglyphic Monad of John Dee Theorems I-XVII: A Guide to the Outer Mysteries," available: http://www.jwmt.org/v2n13/sign.html
Vincent Bridges also refers to but does not explain in print a 93rd Governor, which he connects to the orbit of the moon. Tyson may imply something similar; see Tyson op. cit., p. 149. However, we will leave further exploration of that subject to the reader until next issue.
57. Magickally, it might be easiest to conceptualize Dee's "double cube" as a hypercube where the "outer cubes" of the macrocosm really are the "inner cube" of the central cube we can feel and touch in 3D, though such language was not available to Dee.
59. This is not visible on the graphic in this article, because this occurs on the preceding page of the manuscript copy. However in this case Casaubon's transcription seems nearly identical. See Casaubon, op. cit. p. 179.
63. Stephen Skinner and David Rankine's in Practical Angel Magic of John Dee's Enochian Tables (London : Golden Hoard, 2004) includes a transcription of manuscripts BL Sloane 307 and 3821 and Bodleian Rawlinson D1067 and D1363 (London : Golden Hoard, 2004). However, Skinner and Rankine make many questionable claims about the lineage.